Potential Clinical Application Coating of Pathogen Pathways:  It has been shown that aqueous spray coating of the skin, oral pharynx and nasal hairs offer the potential to disrupt the COVID19 passage way to the pathological target, the lungs.

On Skin:

The coating on the skin is not usually visualized following a spray application.  In order to illustrate what it would look like if you could visualize we staged these photographs with a heavy concentration of crystals so you could appreciate the coating including penetration into the fingerprints.

On Hair:  Body hair is common to the human body and also is in the nose as a filter for particles and or microbes.

A proof of principle study on skin hairs showed that PCA crystals intimately attached to the dry body hairs.

Normal Skin Hair:  Normal skin hair differs from nasal hair in that it is dry. 

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Photomicrographs of normal skin hair in water medium and polarized light.

The normal body hair illuminates under polarized light microscopy, but is very homogenous and no crystalline shapes.

Photomicrograph with polarized light of normal body hair dry; without any liquid.
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Normal Hair shaft under polarized light shows a uniform homogenous polarization in distilled water without PCA.

A 70% denatured ethanol solution of 1% PCA applied to the normal body hair show adherence of the PCA crystals to the hair shaft.  Note the intimacy of crystals to the hair shaft, but no crystals within as seen with nasal hair, but not impregnated as with nasal hair.

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Crystal intimately attached to normal body hair shaft by high power polarized light.

Nasal Hair:

Photograph Normal Nasal Hairs.

A proof of principle study was performed concerning nasal hair.  PCA crystals are easily identified under microscopic polarized lighting.

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Normal nasal hair photomicrograph shows no birefringence of crystals.

The PCA crystal delivered to nasal hairs show the impregnation of these hairs.  This is likely due to the natural aqueous environment in the nose.

Higher power polarize light photomicrograph in water shows crystals within the hair shaft.

On Hard Surface:  The crystals have a minimum of 2-year shelf life.  They have been shown to remain unchanged for at least one year following coating of a hard surface.

Photograph of residual protocatechuate crystals on top of a filing cabinet at one year. The coating was scraped with fingernail to show the pileup of crystals to the right of the bare scraped are area. For reference, the scraped bare area is 2X4 millimeters in size.

On Masks and Personal Protective Equipment:

This photograph illustrates three different concentrations of PCA crystals on polyester shirt material. The localized area was sprayed with the respective solutions. The 30% was used to easily visualize the deposited crystal coating. The crystals are present at 1% and 5%, but less visible to the naked eye. This illustration replicates what would exist on personal protective equipment (PPE).

PCA Amber Color

PCA as a raw crystal is ivory, tan, even brown depending upon the manufacturer.

When put into solution the color becomes amber.

The color varies by manufacturer, percentage concentration and the solution vehicle.

The is a series of percentage concentrations from one manufacturer as well as different vehicles; water and alcohol. On the right is 1% PCA in isopropyl alcohol. Moving from left to right is distilled water at 0.75, 0.5 and the isopropyl alcohol at 0,05 and 0.75. The lesser concentration is lighter.

There has been a concern about the amber color of PCA in solution. Could it be deleterious? The answer is no. The solutions are still clear and histological testing shows PCA crystals at maximum level. These solutions maintain their health and wellness benefits.